Symbol of the Month – the Scallop Shell

 

Carved scallop shell on monument in Brompton Cemetery. Note Celtic cross type support for it.
©Carole TyrrellThis month’s symbol is the scallop shell and is traditionally associated with pilgrims. Since ancient times they have made the not inconsiderable journey to visit St James of Compostella’s shrine in Spain and proudly collected their scallop shell badge as evidence of their trip. But this humble mollusc has several other meanings especially in a funerary context.

However, despite it being a common shell and also an invaluable food source, I have only found it gracing 3 monuments so far.  There are several flat 2D versions on a tomb in Nunhead Cemetery and two examples within Brompton Cemetery; one is a more decorative touch and the other is this lovely 3D beauty.  So well carved and tactile – I just wanted to reach out and touch it.  But I’m keeping a look out for any other shells adorning memorials.

Shells have been with us since time immemorial and who hasn’t picked one up from a beach to take home as a souvenir?

A scallop on sand.
Shared under Wiki Creative Commons

The scallop is inextricably linked with the Christian religion and its use in funerary rites pre-dates the Egyptians.  In pre Christian times, the Celts in particular, used it as an emblem of the setting sun and note that in the above example it is placed in the centre of the supporting Celtic Cross.  The nimbus of the Cross is considered to be a sun symbol.  In Christianity baptismal fonts were often shell shaped and a shell was used to scoop water up and then pour it over the person being baptised’s head. This emphasises the shell’s association with water as it’s thrown up by the sea onto the shore.  But there is another link in that it’s seen as representing the final journey from the world of the living to that of the dead by the crossing of a body of water such as the River Styx and so is also a motif of rebirth.  This is how the early Christian church used it.

Another funerary use for the shell was being placed, often with stones and coins, on tombstones or at gravesites.  The artofmourning website says:

It has been suggested that this refers to the ancient tradition of burying the dead under a cairn of rocks as protection from scavenging animals or as a reminder of the deceased.’

But there’s also a more meditative side to the scallop as its grooves can also be seen as representing many paths leading to one point such as searching for God or a path in life.  So this ancient motif can be seen as representing a journey through life itself or indeed to St James’ shrine.

It’s also associated with fertility and, in particular, the goddess of love, Venus.  In Botticelli’s celebrated painting, ‘The Birth of Venus’, the goddess is portrayed as standing on a large scallop shell.

Sandro Botticelli The Birth of Venus shared under Wiki Creative Commons

Incidentally, it also features in Palladian architecture which flourished 1715 – 1760 which was built on the heritage from Greece and Rome.  Here the shell was used in a concave form and usually within a niche.  In this example, also from Brompton, the shell is less obvious and more of a decorative feature.

Stylised shell decoration on memorial in Brompton Cemetery.
©Carole Tyrrell

The link with St James is that scallop shells are very common in Galacia where the shrine is located.  But there are also 3 very famous myths and legends that reinforce the link.  According to the hillwalktours website:

St James, together with his brother John, one of Christs’  disciples. After Jesus’s death, James went to Iberia, which is now Galacia in the north of Spain with the intention of converting the pagans there to Christianity.  However, in roughly 44AD, after returning to Jerusalem, James was beheaded by order of King Herod.  This made him the first disciple to be martyred. James’s body was then carried by ship to Galacia where the three myths arose.

In the first, the ship carrying St James’ body was lost and destroyed in a severe storm. After an unspecified length of time, his body washed ashore completely covered in scallop shells.  In the second myth, a knight fell from a clifftop as St James’ ship passed beneath. The saint’s influence was felt as the knight emerged from the sea unharmed and covered in scallop shells.  The third and final one features a wedding in which the horse carrying the bride bolted into the ocean as St James’ ship passes by. But the bride and horse were saved as they emerged from the water covered in scallop shells.  Hence the link between St James and the shell.

Pilgrims were big business in medieval times and the scallop was a badge of honour for pilgrims to display that they had made the journey.  They often had their shells buried with them or carved on their tombs.

And so the humble scallop shell reveals itself as an important symbol with several significant meanings.   A fertility symbol, evidence of a seeker exploring many oaths towards their goal or a passenger on Charon’s boat towards eternity?  Myself, I would incline to the final river journey but I also like the idea of exploring many paths in life.   We will probably never know the actual significance of the shell to the deceased but it was important enough to be placed on their memorial to be enjoyed by any passer-by.

©Text and photos Carole Tyrrell unless otherwise stated. ©Carole Tyrrell

References and further reading:

https://artofmourning.com/2006/01/17/symbolism-meaning-objects

www.thecemeteryclub.com/symbols.html

https://www.gravestonestudies.org/knowledge-center/symbolism

www.waysidearteastanglia.me.uk/symbols.html

https://www.hillwalktours.com/…/camino-scallop-shell-symbolism

https://symbolsproject.eu

https://compostela.co/symbols/the-scallop-shell-was-the-emblem

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Birth_of_Venus

 

 

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Poignant and powerful – Beard – a fisherman’s memorial – Hastings East Sussex

Closer view of the powerful and moving photo of ‘Terry Jones aka ‘Beard. Photographer unknown.
©Carole Tyrrell

It was the striking monochrome photo that made me stop to look at this memorial on a day trip to Hastings this month. I’d admired the brand new pier and then wandered along the beach to the fishermen’s section commonly known as the Stade.

The photo was of a man whose tough outdoor life showed in his face and had obviously been a Hastings fisherman. He’d earned his livelihood from the sea in both calm and storm tossed waters with his boat as his only protection as it sailed its course, gulls shrieking overhead for any rejected catch. And then returning to the pebbled Stade at sunrise to offload the catch which would be sold at the Fishmarket later that day.

Beard died aged 68 and may have ended his days as ‘the boy on shore’ which meant that he was no longer able to go out on the boats but, instead, helped bring them ashore or sorted out the catch and nets. He looked quite a character in his photo and I felt that it really captured him.

Hastings fishermen have had the right to use the Stade free of charge for over 800 years. In fact, Stade comes from the Saxon for ‘landing place.’ There are usually 25 boats on the beach and it’s the largest beach launched fishing fleet in Britain. There’s always gulls here looking for any titbits and amidst the pebbles are the usual paraphernalia of fishing; nets, ropes and cuttlefish cages. Near the promenade and the Fishermen’s Museum are the unique tall, black tarred Grade II listed sheds used for storage.  The boats have to be hauled from the sea after each trip so cannot be longer than 10 metres and care only able to travel a few miles.  This makes for an ecologically friendly method of fishing.

But ask any fisherman and he’ll tell that, with quotas and costs,  it’s becoming more and more difficult to make a living from the sea.  In Hastings, there’s also the clash between an old established working community which occupies a large section of valuable land in the Old Town and property developers.  The fishermen strongly opposed the building of the new Jerwood Gallery on part of the Stade.  In fact, ‘No Jerwood’ was the message on one fisherman’s shed.

However, I couldn’t find out much about Beard apart from a brief obituary in the Hastings Observer dated 3 June 2016. It merely said that he’d died peacefully at home on 15 May 2016 and donations were to be given to either the RNLI or Cats Protection.  Under the online condolences was one from a breakdown recovery service who described him as

‘a very jolly, helpful man who will be missed  by the people who knew him…heartfelt condolences and sympathy to all the family.’

So he had a family and was obviously well liked but Beard may have been one of a vanishing breed.   The photo that caught my attention made me wonder about Beard and his life. Memorial benches can often feel very anonymous as there’s usually only a small plaque with a few details but Beard’s photo gave you the man as well.

RIP Beard – may you sail on calm seas forever.

©Text and photos Carole Tyrrell except for photo of Beard. The photographer is unknown.

http://hastings-fish.co.uk/index.htm

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2006/nov/09/food.ethicalliving

https://www.theguardian.com/money/2009/may/30/fisherman-working-life

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Stade