Charles’ Churches part 1 – a visit to St James, Cooling, Kent – a church of ‘great expectations’.

St James, Cooling, Kent from the churchyard gate. ©Carole Tyrrell

‘I give Pirrip as my father’s family name, on the authority of his tombstone and my sister — Mrs. Joe Gargery, who married the blacksmith. As I never saw my father or my mother, and never saw any likeness of either of them (for their days were long before the days of photographs), my first fancies regarding what they were like, were unreasonably derived from their tombstones. The shape of the letters on my father’s, gave me an odd idea that he was a square, stout, dark man, with curly black hair. From the character and turn of the inscription, “Also Georgiana Wife of the Above,” I drew a childish conclusion that my mother was freckled and sickly. To five little stone lozenges, each about a foot and a half long, which were arranged in a neat row beside their grave, and were sacred to the memory of five little brothers of mine — who gave up trying to get a living, exceedingly early in that universal struggle — I am indebted for a belief I religiously entertained that they had all been born on their backs with their hands in their trousers—pockets, and had never taken them out in this state of existence.

Ours was the marsh country, down by the river, within, as the river wound, twenty miles of the sea. My first most vivid and broad impression of the identity of things, seems to me to have been gained on a memorable raw afternoon towards evening. At such a time I found out for certain, that this bleak place overgrown with nettles was the churchyard; and that Philip Pirrip, late of this parish, and also Georgiana wife of the above, were dead and buried; and that Alexander, Bartholomew, Abraham, Tobias, and Roger, infant children of the aforesaid, were also dead and buried; and that the dark flat wilderness beyond the churchyard, intersected with dykes and mounds and gates, with scattered cattle feeding on it, was the marshes; and that the low leaden line beyond, was the river; and that the distant savage lair from which the wind was rushing, was the sea; and that the small bundle of shivers growing afraid of it all and beginning to cry, was Pip.

This is an excerpt from the first chapter of Great Expectations by Charles Dickens. It’s full of atmosphere and mystery as the hero, Pip, conscious that he is alone in the world, contemplates the graves of his family in a Kent churchyard.   Then Magwitch, the escaped convict, comes up from the marshes and finds him. Pip’s life will never be the same again.

The churchyard is that of St James, Cooling.  As I’m currently living in Charles Dickens country in Kent, I thought I should take the opportunity to visit two nearby churches which are associated with him.  After admiring the restored charnel house in the churchyard of St Margaret’s, Cliffe and the container ships on the horizon which weren’t quite so interesting, I set off.  The large sign pointing me to Cooling did not indicate the distance involved but it soon proved to be ‘a country mile’ away. If you’ve not heard this expression before, it means that it’s a lot further away than you thought.  There was no bus service there and so I walked (why I am not a sylph like being by now I have no idea) and walked and walked along what was an empty road for most of my journey.  A straggle of houses soon came to an end, and I was surrounded by fields.  These were sunflower fields that had been harvested.

Harvested sunflower field, Cooling, Kent. ©Carole Tyrrell

A few stragglers were still visible and what a sight they must have been in high summer!  But hope sprang eternal as to me finding the village and at least it was sunny. I kept looking hopefully but at last the remains of the 14th century Cooling Castle came into sight.  It must have been a magnificent and impressive structure in its day and indicated that there must have been a lot more of Cooling then there is now.  It dwarfed the more contemporary corporate events lodge next door to it.

Part of the ruined Cooling Castle. © Carole Tyrrell

On I plodded and then I turned a corner and there was the church! But as I stepped into the churchyard it became overcast and colder. The atmosphere seemed to change and I felt chilly.

I never did find any evidence of an actual village but there was a small terrace of houses on the other side of the churchyard.  This is named, appropriately or unimaginatively, Dickens Walk.  In Dickens time the church was situated on the marshes which have now been drained for farmland.  But it’s still an isolated spot and must be even more so in the depths of winter.  On the horizon were the Coryton oil refineries and the town of Basildon in Essex.  Not very inspiring I thought.  In Dickens time, the church would have been surrounded by the marshes and quite desolate and yet it inspired one of his greatest novels.

Pips Graves, Cooling, Kent. © Carole Tyrrell
Another view of Pips’ Graves. © Carole Tyrrell

‘Pip’s Graves’ as they are known are in a prominent place near the church door – a   group of small graves clustered together as if for company.  These are the children, aged between 1 month to 18 months from two families who all died during the late 18th and 19th centuries.  It was a poignant sight to see so many and there were 2 more child’s graves on the other side of the church. The table top tomb where Dickens liked to set out his picnic lunch is still there and I wondered if the churchyard had changed much since his day.

The tabletop tomb where Dickens liked to lay out his picnic lunch. ©Carole Tyrrell

Also in the churchyard, there was a wide, spreading yew that was growing inside its dead ancestor – no wonder they are seen as symbols of resurrection and on one wall there was a mass dial.  These were the only way of telling the time before the invention of mechanised timekeepers in the 14th century. Mass dials featured in a recent Symbol of the Month.

Yew tree Cooling churchyard © Carole Tyrrell
Mass dial © Carole Tyrrell
A skull on a headstone ©Carole Tyrrell
A chalice on a memorial denoting a priest’s memorial. ©Carole Tyrrell
Winged cherub heads on a headstone. ©Carole Tyrrell

St James’s is a closed church in that it’s no longer used for services and is managed by the Churches Conservation Trust.  On its website it calls itself a ‘church of great expectations’.  Inside it was bright and airy and much of it dated back to the 14th century although there is a 13th century font.  It retains the remnants of a rood screen and loft – obviously the iconoclasts weren’t as enthusiastic in their wrecking sprees here.  The main nave aisle has four memorial slabs  of which one had retained its brass inscription to Thomas Woodycare who died in 1611 and the other one was dedicated to Feyth Brook, the wife of John Brock, Lord Cobham and she died in 1508. The other two were blank or missing their brassware.

St James’ interior. © Carole Tyrrell
Brass of Feyth Brook. © Carole Tyrrell
A memorial missing its brassware. © Carole Tyrrell
An impressive memorial to a previous resident at Cooling Castle. © Carole Tyrrell

Sadly, I missed seeing another of St James’ claims to fame – the 19th century vestry which is covered from floor to ceiling in cockle shells.  The shell is associated with pilgrims who were on the trail to St James’s shrine at Compostela and there is a brass shell on the church’s weathervane.  I may have to make a return visit to see the shell clad vestry. However, it has been suggested that the scene at the beginning of Great Expectations may be a combination of churches in the area but St James does have the sad little graves.

The churchyard also has a reputation for being haunted. Female figures in Victorian dress have been seen drifting across it. I can only say that I did feel watched all the time that I was exploring but when I saw my observer, I knew someone had a sense of humour……

Another resident of the churchyard. © Carole Tyrrell

© Text and photographs Carole Tyrrell unless otherwise stated.

References and further reading;,_Cooling


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